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Historical Essays and Perspectives

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Before Castles: Pre-Medieval Wales: Wales before the Norman Conquest.  Cardigan Castle History, by John Northall: Take a timeline/photo tour of the series castles at Cardigan, built by the Welsh and the Normans.
 The Age of the Castle in Wales: When and how did the age of castles begin?  Pen Y Bryn, The Princes’ Tower, by Jennifer Rahel Conover: Discover the lost palace of Prince Llywelyn ap Iorwerth.
What is a Castle? by Paul M. Remfry:  Short essay on the nature of Medieval castles. Welsh Princes and English Politics by Paul M Remfry: Anglo-Welsh struggles and conflicts viewed in a political context.
Norman, Welsh and Edwardian Castles: An overview of the three main types of castles found in Wales. The Final Campaign of Prince Llywelyn by Paul M Remfry: An examination of the final days of Welsh Prince, Llywelyn ap Gruffydd.
Norman Castles: Descriptions and examples of Norman castles in Wales. Gwenllian, Princess of Wales, by Sian Beidas: The sad story of the fate of the daughter of Prince Llywelyn ap Gruffydd.
Native Welsh Castles, by Lise Hull: Castles built by Welsh Princes and other leaders.  The Welsh Marches, by Lise Hull: Learn about the history of the important strategic territories on the Welsh - English border.
Edwardian Castles: A look at the imposing castles built by King Edward I. The Norman Invasion and Rumney Castle, by K. W. B. Lightfoot: A look at the Norman invasion of south Wales.
Motte-and-Bailey Castles: A description and examples of motte-and-bailey castles.  The Last Campaign of Prince Rhys ap Gruffydd, by Paul M. Remfry: Of all the campaigns carried out by the Welsh in the twelfth century, that by Rhys ap Gruffydd in 1196 rates as the most significant in relation to castle studies.
 The Castle Builders of Wales: A look at the important Welsh castle builders, Kings, Norman Lords, and Native Welsh rulers. Vanished Castles of Wales and The Marches, by Jeffrey L. Thomas: Wales has dozens of interesting castle sites with few visible remains. They count too!
A Timeline of Medieval Welsh Castles by Paul M Remfry: Extensive list of important dates regarding Welsh castles. Medieval Welsh Warriors and Warfare, by Daniel Mersey: A look at the nature of medieval Welsh warfare and tactics.
The Dating of Medieval Military Architecture by Paul M Remfry: A guide to accurate dating of castle architecture. Castles are Rubbish - Archaeological Research, by Daniel Mersey: The important role of archaeology in the rediscovery of Welsh castles.
Welsh Castles after the Edwardian Conquest: Welsh castles still had a role to play following the Edwardian conquest.  In Search of Ednyfed's Castle, by John Northall: A look at this interesting site with ties to Iron Age, Roman, and Medieval Wales.
The Castle in Tudor Wales, when some medieval castles were remodeled into stately homes.  The Castles of Wales in Art: A selection of drawings and paintings of Welsh castles, romantic depictions that helped create the castle preservation movement.
The Castles of Wales and the Civil War: The role of castles during the Civil War, including their destruction. Artistic Impressions: Samuel and Nathaniel Buck, by Richard Williams: The Buck brothers were among the first to document castles with their 18th-century drawings. 
Castle Siegecraft and Defence: Castle attack and defense tactics and weapons.  Sycharth Castle, by Richard Williams: Ancestral home of Welsh patriot  Owain Glyndwr.
A Timeline of Medieval Wales: Important and notable dates in medieval Welsh history. Essay on William Marshall, by Catherine Armstrong: Ms. Armstrong is an expert and published author on the life and times of arguably one of the most dominant Marcher Lords in Medieval Wales.
Edward I's Welsh Castles, by Ben Furnival: Well-written essay examining the role of castles in the conquest of Wales.  Cadw and Castle Conservation, by Richard Avent: An explanation of CADW's important heritage conservation mission.
 An Argument for exploring the Lesser-Known Castles of Wales, by Jeffrey L. Thomas: Why we should consider seeking out the less-famous Welsh castles. Early Medieval Powys & The Heledd Poetry, by Susan Mayse: Comments regarding pre-medieval Powys, the Welsh tradition of Canu Heledd poetry, Offa's Dyke, and Elise's Pillar.

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