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Historical Essays and Perspectives

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A Selection of Essays From Our Contributing Editors

Before Castles: Pre-Medieval Wales: Wales and its rulers prior to the Norman Conquest. Cardigan Castle Uncovered, by John Northall. Mr Northall gives us an insider's view of this seldom-seen but important Welsh Castle,  accompanied by rarely seen photographs.
What is a Castle? by Paul M. Remfry:  Short essay on the nature of Medieval castles. Drawing, Site Plan & Historical Timeline for Degannwy Castle, by John Northall. Mr. Northall presents a plan and explanation of how this now-ruined native Welsh castle may have once appeared.
The Age of the Castle in Wales: When and how did the age of castles begin? In Search of Ednyfed's Castle, by John Northall: A look at this interesting site with ties to Iron Age, Roman, and Medieval Wales.
The Castle Builders of Wales: A look at the important Welsh castle builders, Kings, Norman Lords, and Native Welsh rulers. Haverfordwest Castle, by John Northall. History, photographs, and a timeline for this often overlooked by historically significant castle in west Wales.
A Timeline of Medieval Welsh Castles by Paul M Remfry: Extensive list of important dates regarding Welsh castles. Edward I's Welsh Castles, by Ben Furnival: Well-written essay examining the role of castles in the conquest of Wales.
Norman, Welsh and Edwardian Castles: An overview of the three main types of castles found in Wales. Excavations at Dolforwyn Castle, by Daniel Mersey. As a member of the excavation team, Mr Mersey gives a first-hand account of this significant excavation project.
Norman Castles in Wales Medieval Welsh Warriors and Warfare, by Daniel Mersey: A look at the nature of medieval Welsh warfare and tactics.
Native Welsh Castles, by Lise Hull: Castles built by Welsh Princes and other leaders. Castles are Rubbish - Archaeological Research, by Daniel Mersey: The important role of archaeology in the rediscovery of Welsh castles.
Edwardian Castles: A look at the imposing castles built by King Edward I. Sycharth Castle, by Richard Williams: Ancestral home of Welsh patriot  Owain Glyndwr.
Motte-and-Bailey Castles: A description and examples of motte-and-bailey castles. Essay on William Marshall, by Catherine Armstrong: Ms. Armstrong is an expert and published author on the life and times of arguably one of the most dominant Marcher Lords in Medieval Wales.
The Welsh Marches, by Lise Hull: Learn about the history of the important strategic territories on the Welsh - English border. Welsh Princes and English Politics by Paul M Remfry: Anglo-Welsh struggles and conflicts viewed in a political context.
Welsh Castles after the Edwardian Conquest: Welsh castles still had a role to play following the Edwardian conquest. Pen Y Bryn, The Princes’ Tower, by Jennifer Rahel Conover: Discover the lost palace of Prince Llywelyn ap Iorwerth.
The Castle in Tudor Wales, when some medieval castles were remodeled into stately homes. The Norman Invasion and Rumney Castle, by K. W. B. Lightfoot: A look at the Norman invasion of south Wales.
The Castles of Wales and the Civil War: The role of castles during the Civil War, including their destruction. Gwenllian, Princess of Wales, by Sian Beidas: The sad story of the fate of the daughter of Prince Llywelyn ap Gruffydd.
Castle Siegecraft and Defence: Castle attack and defense tactics and weapons. Why we should visit the Lesser-Known castles of Wales, by Jeffrey L. Thomas: Why exploring less substantial Welsh castles can be just as rewarding as visiting the most famous ones. 
The Dating of Medieval Military Architecture by Paul M Remfry: A guide to accurate dating of castle architecture. Welsh Castles As Art: A selection of drawings and paintings of Welsh castles, romantic depictions that helped create the castle preservation movement.
A Timeline of Medieval Wales: Important and notable dates in medieval Welsh history. Artistic Impressions: Samuel and Nathaniel Buck, by Richard Williams: The Buck brothers were among the first to document castles with their 18th-century drawings. 
The Last Campaign of Prince Rhys ap Gruffydd, by Paul M. Remfry: The campaigns by Rhys ap Gruffydd in 1196 rates as the most significant in relation to castle studies. Cadw and Castle Conservation, by Richard Avent: An explanation of CADW's important heritage conservation mission.
The Final Campaign of Prince Llywelyn by Paul M Remfry: An examination of the final days of Welsh Prince, Llywelyn ap Gruffydd. Early Medieval Powys & The Heledd Poetry, by Susan Mayse: Comments regarding pre-medieval Powys, the Welsh tradition of Canu Heledd poetry.

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